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Trivia

  • one of the four Atlantic provinces on the east coast of Canada
  • second smallest province (P.E.I. is the smallest)
  • made up of the mainland and Cape Breton Island
  • also includes over 3800 coastal islands
  • capital city and largest city is Halifax – 372,858 (2006 Census Canada figures)
  • Halifax is an international seaport and transportation center.
  • flower – the Mayflower, tree -Red Spruce, bird – Osprey
  • “Nova Scotia” means “New Scotland” in Latin.
  • motto : ” One defends and the other conquers”

The people

  • There are 938,310 people living in Nova Scotia.(2008)
  • Many people live in or close to Halifax.
  • Most of the communities are along the coast.
  • First people were the Micmacs (Mi’Kmaq Indians).
  • People came from Britain, Western Europe, and Southern Europe.
  • Over eighty percent are of British ancestry, eighteen percent are of French ancestry
  • Other groups include German, Dutch, Poles, Ukrainian, Chinese, Scandinavian and native people.
  • N.S. has Canada’s oldest African-Canadian community.

History

  • The Vikings first visited around the year 990.
  • Explorer John Cabot came to Nova Scotia in 1497.
  • Micmac lived there. They hunted, fished, gathered plants and berries.
  • French settlers arrived in 1605.
  • A French settlement named Port Royal was built in 1605.
  • The area was turned over to the British after a war.
  • French colonists were forced to leave.
  • Some went back to France while others went to the U.S.
  • Later settlers came from England, Germany, Scotland.
  • In 1783 the United Empire Loyalists came from the United States.
  • In 1784 Nova Scotia was partitioned and the colonies of New Brunswick and Cape Breton Island were created.
  • In 1820 Cape Breton Island became part of Nova Scotia again.
  • In 1867 Nova Scotia became a part of the Dominion of Canada.

Climate

  • Cool dry air from the interior mixes with warmer wet air over the sea.
  • Areas along the coast are milder and wetter than the areas inland.
  • The Atlantic coast is foggy, especially in the spring.
  • There are heavy rains and stormy weather in the fall.
  • The province has experienced hurricanes in the late summer.

Land and water

  • The province is almost surrounded by water.
  • The Atlantic Ocean is to the south and east.
  • Nova Scotia and New Brunswick are connected by a small land bridge (28 km Isthmus of Chignecto) .
  • The Bay of Fundy stretches between Nova Scotia and New Brunswick.
  • The Bay of Fundy has world’s highest tides.
  • Much of the province is part of the Appalachian Region.
  • The province is covered with forests and lakes.
  • There are 3000 small lakes.
  • Almost 7500 km is rocky coastline.
  • There are salt marshes and ice-free deep water harbours along the coast.
  • The Strait of Canso (1.2 km wide) separates the mainland of Nova Scotia from Cape Breton Island.
  • The Canso Causeway is a road which connects the island to the mainland.

Resources / industries

  • Coal mining, fishing and fish processing were once major industries.
  • The Fishery is the oldest and most important natural resource.
  • Haddock and cod were once caught in great numbers.
  • Scallops, crabs, clams, cod, haddock, pollock, herring and salmon are caught in the waters off Nova Scotia.
  • Lobsters from N.S. are shipped all across Canada.
  • There are about 160 fish processing plants.
  • The main mineral is coal which is used for making electricity.
  • Refineries turn oil into gasoline and other products.
  • Both hardwood and softwood forests cover much of the province.
  • Forest products include lumber, pulp and paper and Christmas trees.
  • There are three pulp and paper mills and several hundred sawmills.
  • Nova Scotia is among the leading producers of gypsum in the world. Gypsum is used in the manufacture of wallboard.
  • Apples, blueberries, pears and strawberries are grown in the Annapolis Valley.

People and places

  • Anne Murray is a singer and songwriter from Springhill, who has many gold singles.
  • Singer Rita MacNeil and musician Ashley MacIssac are from Nova Scotia.
  • Marconi sent the first official west-to-east wireless ( radio) message across the Atlantic Ocean from Table Head, Cape Breton Island in 1902.
  • A. Gesner made kerosene in the 1850s. The kerosene was burned in lamps and lanterns. He is known as the Father of the Petroleum Industry.
  • Thomas Haliburton was a famous writer who wrote books about a character named Sam Slick.
  • Joshua Slocum was the first to sail alone around the world in the 1890s.
  • In the 1920s and 1930s the Bluenose schooner was famous for winning international races.
  • Nova Scotia is called “Canada’s ocean playground”
  • Fishing villages and lighthouses along the coastline attract tourists.
  • Peggy’s Cove is a well-known fishing village with a lighthouse.
  • The Citadel is a fort built (1856) on a hill overlooking Halifax harbour.
  • Alexander Graham Bell National Historic Site (Cape Breton Island) has a museum displaying his inventions. He is the inventor of the telephone.
  • The Fortress of Louisbourg (Cape Breton Island) is the largest reconstructed 18th-century French fortified town in North America.
  • Bras d’Or lake (Cape Breton Island) is a saltwater lake that is a nesting site of the endangered bald eagle.
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